Almost 200 years after the previous siege, and 240 years after the Spanish captured Gibraltar from the Moors, the eleventh siege arose from the War of the Spanish Succession, in which several European powers, led by England and the Dutch Republic, joined forces against France in 1702 to prevent the unification of the Spanish and French thrones.
The allies sought a base from which they could control the Straits of Gibraltar. After unsuccessful attempts on several other ports, including Cádiz in 1702, the allied fleet commanded by Admiral George Rooke decided to take Gibraltar.
The siege began on 1 August 1704 when the allies landed around 2,000 marines on the isthmus, cutting Gibraltar off from mainland Spain. The next day, Rooke ordered a squadron of vessels to form a line from Old Mole to New Mole along the west coast of the Rock. Early on 3 August, they began bombarding Gibraltar’s fortifications. The bombardment lasted around six hours, after which a landing party attempted to storm the New Mole (which exploded as they did so, possibly because of English carelessness or a Spanish trap). The survivors eventually managed to proceed along the sea wall to Europa Point until a truce was agreed, allowing the governor until the next morning to agree with the city council to surrender, which they did at dawn on 4 August.
The confederates captured Gibraltar.