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Tariq Ibn Ziyad

Tariq Ibn Ziyad

The Umayyad general Tariq ibn Ziyad, leading a Berber-dominated army, sailed across the Strait from Ceuta. He first attempted to land on Algeciras but failed. Upon his failure, he landed undetected at the southern point of the Rock from present-day Morocco in his quest for Spain.

 

It was here that Gibraltar was named. Coming from the Arabian words Gabal-Al-Tariq (the mountain of Tariq). Little was built during the first four centuries of Moorish control.

 

Abu al-Mu’min

Abu al-Mu’min

Gibraltar was fortified for the first time in response to coastal threats posed by the Christian kings of Aragon and Castile. On 19th March, Almohad Sultan, Abd al-Mu’min, issued an order and charged two of the most important architects of the day with the task of building a permanent settlement. This city was to be laid out on the upper slopes of the Rock and was to include a castle, mosque, several palaces for himself and his sons, and reservoirs to provide a supply of water. 

 

It was to be protected by a “wall of fine build” with a single gate known as the Bab al-Fath (Gate of Victory) facing towards the isthmus connecting Gibraltar with the mainland. A harbour was also to be constructed, and windmills were to be constructed on the Rock.

 

Gibraltar was renamed Jebel al-Fath (Mount of Victory), though this name did not persist, and a fortified city named Medinat al-Fath (City of Victory).

 

The Tower of Homage of the castle remains standing today (Moorish Castle).

Collapse of Almohad Empire

Collapse of Almohad Empire

After the collapse of the Almohad Empire, Gibraltar was taken by Ibn Hud, a Taifa Emir of Al-Andalus.

 

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KING CHARLES II OF SPAIN

KING CHARLES II OF SPAIN

1st November 1700

King Charles II of Spain died leaving no descendants. In the autumn he had made a will naming his successor as Philip of Bourbon, a grandson of Louis XIV backed by France. Upon any possible refusal, the crown of Spain would be offered next to Philip’s younger brother, the Duke of Berry, and then to the Archduke Charles of Austria.

 

Archduke Charles, supported by the Holy Roman Empire, England and the Netherlands did not accept Charles II’s testament.

 

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Image: Portrait of Charles II of Spain, Juan Carreño, c. 1685

ARCHDUKE CHARLES – PRETENDER TO THE THRONE

ARCHDUKE CHARLES – PRETENDER TO THE THRONE

1st November 1700

Following the death of his relative, Charles II of Spain, son of Holy Roman Emperor Leopold I, Archduke Charles of Austria declares himself King of Spain.

 

During the War of the Spanish Succession, inside of Spain, the majority of the nobility of the Crown of Aragon supported Archduke Charles’ claim to the Spanish throne by right of his grandmother Maria Anna of Spain. Charles was even hailed as King of Aragon under the name Charles III.

 

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Image: Coat of arms of Archduke Charles of Austria as claim to the Spanish throne, variant used in the peninsular territories of the Crown of Aragon Version with Supporters

PHILIP OF ANJOU

PHILIP OF ANJOU

16th November 1700

Philip of Anjou is proclaimed Philip V of Spain.

 

During the War of the Spanish Succession, inside Spain, the Crown of Castile supported Philip, whilst the Crown of Aragon supported Archduke Charles.

 

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Image: Proclamation of Philip V as King of Spain in the Palace of Versailles on November 16, 1700

SPANISH SUCCESSION

SPANISH SUCCESSION

July 1701 – August 1714

The War of the Spanish Succession (1701–1714) was a major European conflict of the early 18th century, triggered by the death in 1700 of the last Habsburg King of Spain, the infirm and childless Charles II. Charles II had ruled over a vast global empire, and the question of who would succeed him had long troubled the governments of Europe. Attempts to solve the problem by peacefully partitioning the empire among the eligible candidates from the royal houses of France (Bourbon), Austria (Habsburg), and Bavaria (Wittelsbach) ultimately failed, and on his deathbed Charles II fixed the entire Spanish inheritance on his grandnephew Philip, Duke of Anjou, the second-eldest grandson of King Louis XIV of France. With Philip ruling in Spain, Louis XIV would secure great advantages for his dynasty, but some statesmen regarded a dominant House of Bourbon as a threat to European stability, jeopardising the balance of power.

 

To counter Louis XIV’s growing dominance, England, the Dutch Republic, and Austria – together with their allies in the Holy Roman Empire – re-formed the 1680s Grand Alliance (1701) and supported Emperor Leopold I‘s claim to the whole Spanish inheritance for his second son, Archduke Charles.

 

The English, the Dutch and the Austrians formally declared war in May 1702. By 1708, the Duke of Marlborough and Prince Eugene of Savoy had secured victory in the Spanish Netherlands and in Italy, and had defeated Louis XIV’s ally Bavaria. But Allied unity broke and the Grand Alliance was defeated in Spain. With casualties mounting and aims of the Alliance diverging, the Tories came to power in Great Britain in 1710 and resolved to end the war, ceasing combat operations in 1712. The Dutch, Austrians, and German states fought on to strengthen their own negotiating position, but defeated by Marshal Villars, they had to accept Anglo-French mediation. The Treaty of Utrecht (1713) and the Treaty of Rastatt (1714) ended the conflict by partitioning the Spanish empire. The Austrians received most of Spain’s former European realms, while the Duke of Anjou retained peninsular Spain and Spanish America, where, after renouncing his claim to the French succession, he reigned (with one brief interlude) as King Philip V until 1746.

 

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Image: Europe in 1700, at the beginning of the War of the Spanish Succession

TREATY OF THE HAGUE

7th September 1701

England, the Netherlands and Austria signed the Treaty of The Hague. By this treaty, they accepted Philippe of Anjou as King of Spain, but allotted Austria the Spanish territories in Italy and the Spanish Netherlands. England and the Netherlands, meanwhile, were to retain their commercial rights in Spain. Later (in 1703), Portugal, Savoy and some German states joined the alliance.

 

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Diego de Salinas

Diego de Salinas

Born 03.08.1649 – Died 27.11.1720

 

TERM: 1700 – 1704, 4th August 

 

Don Diego Esteban Gómez de Salinas y Rodríguez de Villarroel was the last Spanish Governor of Gibraltar.

He was appointed military governor (alcaide) of Gibraltar in 1700 and then appointed Governor by Philip V in December 1701. He arrived on The Rock in early 1702.

With the start of hostilities in the War of the Spanish Succession, Salinas requested reinforcements which were never sent. On 1 August 1704, English marines under the command of Prince George of Hesse-Darmstadt landed on the isthmus north of The Rock from the Bay of Gibraltar and after preparing a three-pronged attack plan sent a message asking for surrender. Salinas did not accept, and the city was bombarded on 3 August by the enemy ships. Salinas capitulated on the morning of 4 August.

He died in his hometown of Madrid in November 1720.

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CAPTURE OF GIBRALTAR – THE 11th SIEGE

CAPTURE OF GIBRALTAR – THE 11th SIEGE

1st – 21st August 1704

The Capture of Gibraltar by Anglo-Dutch forces of the Grand Alliance occurred between 1–3 August 1704 during the War of the Spanish Succession. Since the beginning of the war the Alliance had been looking for a harbour in the Iberian Peninsula to control the Strait of Gibraltar and facilitate naval operations against the French fleet in the western Mediterranean Sea.

 

Prince George of Hesse-Darmstadt represented the Habsburg cause in the region. In May 1704 the Prince and Admiral George Rooke, commander of the main Grand Alliance fleet, failed to take Barcelona in the name of ‘Charles III’; Rooke subsequently evaded pressure from his allies to make another attempt on Cádiz. In order to compensate for their lack of success the Alliance commanders resolved to capture Gibraltar. Following a heavy bombardment the town was invaded by English and Dutch marines and sailors.

 

The governor, Diego de Salinas, agreed to surrender Gibraltar and its small garrison on 3 August. Three days later Prince George entered the town with Austrian and Spanish Habsburg troops in the name of Charles III of Spain.

 

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Image: View of Gibraltar taken by an officer of Admiral Sir George Rooke’s fleet on July 1704

Prince George of Hesse-Darmstadt

Prince George of Hesse-Darmstadt

Born 1669 – Died 13.09.1705

 

TERM: 4th – 6th August 1704

 

Prince George Louis of Hessen-Darmstadt was a Field Marshal in the Austrian army.

He is known for his career in Habsburg Spain, as Viceroy of Catalonia (1698 – 1701), head of the Austrian army in the War of Spanish Succession (1701 – 1705).

He was appointed Governor of Gibraltar by Charles III, pretender to the Spanish throne.

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Henry Nugent

Henry Nugent

Born in Ireland – Died in November 1704

 

TERM: 1704, 6th August – 1704, November

 

Henry Nugent, Count of Valdesoto and Viscount Coolamber was an Irish military man.

He was the second Governor of Gibraltar during the Habsburg occupation and was appointed by Charles III, pretender to the Spainish throne.

Nugent served as Governor for a period of 6 months between August and November 1704.

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FIRST SPANISH SIEGE (12th SEIGE OF GIBRALTAR)

5th September 1704 – 31st March 1705

At the start of the siege, Gibraltar was garrisoned by around 2,000 Dutch, English, Austrian and pro-Habsburg Spanish troops facing a besieging force of up to 8,000 French, pro-Bourbon Spanish and Irish troops. The defenders were able to hold off the numerically superior besieging force through exploiting Gibraltar’s geography and the small town’s fortifications, though they were frequently short of manpower and ammunition. The besiegers were undermined by disputes between the French and Spanish officers and terrible conditions in their trenches and bastions, which led to outbreaks of epidemic disease and undermined morale. Sea power proved crucial, as the French navy sought unsuccessfully to prevent the Grand Alliance shipping in fresh troops, ammunition and food. Three naval battles were fought during the siege, two of which were clear defeats for the French and the last of which resulted in the siege being abandoned as hopeless after nine months of fruitless shelling. The outcome was disastrous for the French and Bourbon Spanish side, which was said to have lost 10,000 men against only 400 for the Grand Alliance.

 

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John Shrimpton

John Shrimpton

TERM: 1704, 24th December – 1707, 24th December

 

John Shrimpton joined the Army becoming a Major in the 1st (Queen’s Own) Foot Guards.

In 1693, during the Nine Years’ War, he was wounded at the Battle of Landen in Flanders.

In 1701 he became Member of Parliament for Whitchurch.

When the Garrison in Gibraltar came under threat from the French in 1704, a force of 2,500 troops under Shrimpton’s command was dispatched to re-inforce the Garrison. Archduke Charles, acting on the recommendation of Queen Anne, asked Shrimpton to accept an appointment as Governor and he remained there until 1707.

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REST OF THE WAR

2nd August 1705 – 1711

During the rest of the War of the Spanish Succession, although nominally in the hands of the Archduke Charles, and garrisoned with both English and Dutch regiments, Britain began to monopolize the rule of the town. Even if the formal transfer of sovereignty would not take place until the signature of the Treaty of Utrecht, the British Governor and garrison become the de facto rulers of the town.

 

1705, 2 August  –  The Archduke Charles stopped over in Gibraltar on his way to the territories of the Crown of Aragon. The Prince of Hesse joined him, thus leaving the town (he would die one month later in the siege of Barcelona). The English Major General John Shrimpton was left as governor (appointed by the Archduke Charles on the recommendation of Queen Anne).

 

1706, 17 February  –  Queen Anne though not yet the legal ruler of the territory declared Gibraltar a free port (upon request of the Sultan of Morocco, who wanted Gibraltar being given this status in return for supplying the town).

 

1707, 24 December  –  The first British Governor directly appointed by Queen Anne, Roger Elliott, took up residence in the Convent of the Franciscan friars.

 

1711  –  The British government, then in the hands of the Tories, covertly ordered the British Gibraltar governor, Thomas Stanwix, to expel any foreign (not British) troops (to foster Great Britain’s sole right to Gibraltar in the negotiations running up between Britain and France). Although he answered positively, he allowed a Dutch regiment to stay. It remained there until March 1713.

Roger Elliott

Roger Elliott

Born c 1665 – Died 16.05.1714

 

TERM: 1707, 24th December – 1711, 24th January

 

In March 1705, Colonel Elliott’s Regiment of Foot embarked for Spain and served at Gibraltar, which was declared a free port in 1706. In 1707 he was promoted to Lieutenant-Governor of Gibraltar and then appointed Governor on 24 December. He was one of the earliest British Governors.

On 1 January 1710, he was promoted to Major-General, and on 24 January 1711, he handed over the Governorship to Brigadier-General Thomas Stanwix. He finally departed Gibraltar on 18 June 1711.

His nephew George Augustus Elliott also became a noted Governor and defender of Gibraltar in 1777.

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Thomas Stanwix

Thomas Stanwix

Born 1670 – Died 14.03.1725

 

TERM: 1711, 24th January – 1713, 7th August

 

Brigadier General Thomas Stanwix was a British Army officer and politician.

During the War of the Spanish Succession 1703, he was present at the Battle of Caia in Portugal. He became Governor in 1711, but was unsuccessful as Govenor, as his main achievement was to become richer than when he arrived. Observers felt that he should have concentrated on encouraging the Dutch to leave so that the benefits of the Capture of Gibraltar (in 1704) could be directed entirely in Britain’s direction. Stanwick was tenacious as even when he was replaced by David Colyear he stayed on as lieutenant-governor for some months.

On 13 July 1713, Spain ceded Gibraltar to Great Britain in the Treaty of Utrecht. Stanwix remained governor for a further month until 7th August 1713.

BIOGRAPHY

TREATY OF UTRECHT

TREATY OF UTRECHT

 
 

APRIL 1713

 

Under Article X of the treaty, Spain cedes Gibraltar to Great Britain

 

BRITISH RULE

BRITISH RULE

11th April 1713

The territory was subsequently ceded to the Crown of Great Britain in perpetuity by Spain under article X of the Treaties of Utrecht. Despite some military attempts by the Spanish to retake it in the 18th century, most notably in the Great Siege of 1779–1783, the Rock has remained under British control ever since.

 

In that treaty, Spain ceded Great Britain “the full and entire propriety of the town and castle of Gibraltar, together with the port, fortifications, and forts thereunto belonging … for ever, without any exception or impediment whatsoever.”

 

The Treaty stipulated that no overland trade between Gibraltar and Spain was to take place, except for emergency provisions in the case that Gibraltar is unable to be supplied by sea. Another condition of the cession was that “no leave shall be given under any pretence whatsoever, either to Jews or Moors, to reside or have their dwellings in the said town of Gibraltar.” This was not respected for long and Gibraltar has had for many years an established Jewish community, along with Muslims from North Africa.

 

Finally, under the Treaty, should the British crown wish to dispose of Gibraltar, that of Spain should be offered the territory first.

 

Image: The pre-1801 Union Flag (of Great Britain). Note the term “King’s Colours”. This term is used by US-based flag makers and sellers because this was one of the flags used by the King’s forces during the American Revolutionary War.

PRE PENINSULAR WARS

12th April 1713 – 1728

Between 1713 and 1728, there were seven occasions when British ministers was prepared to bargain Gibraltar away as part of his foreign policy. However, the Parliament frustrated always such attempts, echoing the public opinion in Britain.

 

1721, March  –  Philip V of Spain requested the restitution of Gibraltar to proceed to the renewal of the trade licences of Great Britain with the Spanish possessions in America.

 

1721, 1 June  –  George I sent a letter to Philip V promising “to make use of the first favourable Opportunity to regulate this Article (the Demand touching the Restitution of Gibraltar), with the Consent of my Parliament“. However, the British Parliament never endorsed such promise.

 

1727, February-June  –  Second of the sieges by Spain tried to recapture Gibraltar (Thirteenth Siege of Gibraltar). Depending on the sources, Spanish troops were between 12,000 and 25,000. British defenders were 1,500 at the beginning of the siege, increasing up to about 5,000. After a five-month siege with several unsuccessful and costly attempts, Spanish troops gave up and retired.

 

1729  –  At the end of the Anglo-Spanish War of 1727–1729, the Treaty of Seville confirming all previous treaties (including the Treaty of Utrecht) allowed Great Britain to keep Menorca and Gibraltar.

 

1730  –  A Belgian Engineer, the Marquis of Verboom, Chief Engineer of the Spanish Royal Engineer Corps, who had taken part in the 1727 siege, arrived in San Roque commissioned by the Spanish government to design a line of fortifications across the isthmus. Fort San Felipe and Fort Santa Barbara were built. The fortifications, known to the British as the Spanish Lines, and to Spain as La Línea de Contravalación were the origin of modern-day town of La Línea de la Concepción.

 

1749-1754  –  Lieutenant General Humphrey Bland is the Governor of Gibraltar. He compiles the twelve “Articles” or regulations that ruled the administration of Gibraltar for over sixty years. First article, dealing with property, establishes that only Protestants may own property. In 1754 the population settled at around 6,000 people, with the garrison and their dependants constituting about three-quarters of it. The civilian population comprised mainly Genoese and Jews.

 

1776, 23 February    One of the heaviest storms ever recorded in Gibraltar. The lower part of the town was flooded. Linewall was breached along 100 m.

 

1779, June  –  In the midst of the American Revolutionary War, Spain declared war against Great Britain (as France had done the year before).

ARMY REGIMENTS GIBRALTAR 1713

Pearce’s Regiment 1704 – 1732

1751: 5th Regiment of Foot

1881: Northumberland Fusiliers 

 

RAISED: By Daniel O’Brien, 3rd Viscount Clare, as Viscount Clare’s Regiment in 1674 as one of three English units in the Dutch Anglo-Scots Brigade. The regiment accompanied William III (William of Orange, Holland), to England in the November 1688 Glorious Revolution and became part of the English establishment in 1689.  

 

GIBRALTARIn 1713, the regiment was posted to Gibraltar, where it spent the next 15 years. It was part of the garrison during the 1727 Anglo-Spanish War, when the Spanish besieged Gibraltar for over four months.[ref]

 

COLONELMajor-General Thomas Pearce, (~1670 – 1739), an English army officer, was Colonel of the regiment from 1704 – 1732. 

 

MORE INFO: THOMAS PEARCEParliamentary History / Wikipedia 

 



Egerton’s Regiment 1719 – 1732

1751: 20th Regiment of Foot

1881: Lancashire Fusiliers

 

RAISEDBy a commission dated 20 November 1688, the regiment was formed in Torbay, Devon under Sir Richard Peyton as Peyton’s Regiment of FootIts first overseas deployments were to the Low Countries in 1689 and Spain in the 1700s.

 

GIBRALTARIn 1713, it began 60 years rotating between England, Ireland and the Mediterranean, including two long spells with the Gibraltar garrison.[ref]

 

In 1727, was one of the four regiments that made up the sparsely defended garrison of approximately 1200 men, until reinforcements arrived. After serving in Gibraltar for 15 years, the regiment left in 1728 and returned to Ireland.

 

COLONEL: William Egerton (1684 – 1732) a British Army officer was Colonel of the regiment from 1719 – 1732.

 

MORE INFO: WILLIAM EGERTONParliamentary History / Wikipedia 

SPAIN CEDES GIBRALTAR TO GREAT BRITAIN IN THE TREATY OF UTRECHT

SPAIN CEDES GIBRALTAR TO GREAT BRITAIN IN THE TREATY OF UTRECHT

 

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Gibraltar Governor David Colyear

Earl of Portmore

Born 1656 – Died 02.01.1730

 

TERM: 1713, 7th August – 1720, 20th October

 

General David Colyear, 1st Earl of Portmore KT PC, was a Scottish general and was commissioned into the Army of William of Orange in 1674.

He took part in the War of Spanish Succession and participated in the Battle of Cádiz in 1702 and the Battle of Vigo Bay later that year.

In August 1713, he was constituted Governor of Gibraltar, and in October of the same year he was chosen one of the sixteen representative peers of Scotland. When Gibraltar was besieged by the Spaniards in 1727, he embarked for that place to assume command, but on the approach of Admiral Wager with eleven ships the siege was raised. 

BIOGRAPHY

COTTON’S REGIMENT GIBRALTAR

Cotton’s Regiment 1715 – 1725

1751: 13th Regiment of Foot 

1881: Somerset Light Infantry

 

RAISED: One of nine regiments of foot raised by James II when he expanded the size of the army in response to the Monmouth Rebellion of 1685. 

 

GIBRALTARIn 1704, Barrymore’s Regiment moved to the Iberian Peninsula taking part in the defence of the recently-captured Gibraltar (1704 – 05) and the Siege of Barcelona (1705). In 1711, the regiment started a long period of garrison duty at Gibraltar.

 

COLONELStanhope Cotton, an officer in the British Army and Lieutenant Governor of Gibraltar in 1716, was Colonel of the regiment from 1715 – 1725,[ref] succeeding Barrymore.

 

The colonelcy of the regiment changed again in 1725 when Lord Mark Kerr (Kerr’s Regiment), succeeded Stanhope Cotton and again in 1732 when Colonel John Middleton (Middleton’s Regiment), succeeded Lord Kerr.

Gibraltar Governor Richard Kane

Richard Kane

Born 1662 – Died 1736

 

TERM: 1720, 20th October – 1727, 2nd February

 

Brigadier General Richard Kane was a British Army General.

He was Lieutenant Governor of Minorca, arriving there in November 1712.

In 1720 to 1721, he was appointed Lieutenant Governor of Gibraltar when it was threatened by Spain and, in 1725, George I ordered him to return to Gibraltar again to strengthen the defences and ward off Spanish invaders. This he did and at the same time he recommended a civil government for “the Rock”. George I rewarded him in 1725 for his work by giving him the colonelcy of a regiment (later the 9th Regiment of Foot). Kane returned to Minorca in February 1727, just before the Spanish launched an unsuccessful siege on Gibraltar.

BIOGRAPHY

BISSETT’S REGIMENT GIBRALTAR

Bissett’s Regiment 1717 – 1742

1751: 30th Regiment of Foot

1881: East Lancashire Regiment

 

RAISEDThe regiment was re-raised in Lincolnshire in 1702 by Colonel Thomas Sanderson as Thomas Sanderson’s Regiment of Marines.  The unit took part in the capture and defence of Gibraltar in July 1704.

 

GIBRALTARBissett’s Regiment arrived in Gibraltar in 1723 and in 1727, was one of the four regiments that made up the sparsely defended garrison of approximately 1200 men, until reinforcements arrived.

 

The regiment left Gibraltar and returned to Cork, Ireland in 1728,[ref] although other sources suggest that they left in 1732.[ref] 

 

COLONELLieutenant General Andrew Bissett, a British Army officer was the Colonel of the regiment from 1717 to 1742.[ref]

LORD MARK KERR’S REGIMENT GIBRALTAR

Lord Mark Kerr’s Regiment 1725 – 1732

(See Cotton’s Regiment 1715 for regimental history)

1751: 13th Regiment of Foot

1881: Somerset Light Infantry

 

COLONELThe colonelcy of the Regiment changed in 1725 when Lord Mark Kerr succeeded Stanhope Cotton. 

 

Lord Mark Kerr (baptised 1 April 1676 – 2 February 1752) was a Scottish-born professional soldier, who served in the War of the Spanish Succession and the War of the Quadruple Alliance. He remained as Colonel of the regiment until May 1732 when he was succeeded by Colonel John Middleton.

 

Before Kerr transferred his colonelcy to the Somerset Light Infantry, he was formally the colonel of the the 29th (Worcestershire) Regiment of Foot from 1712 until 1725 when he was succeeded by Henry Disney (Disney’s Regiment).

 

MORE INFO: LORD MARK KERR

Jasper Clayton

Jasper Clayton

Died 27.06.1743

 

TERM: 1727, 2nd February – 1730, 13th May

 

Jasepr Clayton was a Lieutenant General in the British Army.

In 1707, during the War of the Spanish Succession, he was present at the Battle of Almansa.

In 1713 he was made Colonel of the 14th Regiment of Foot.

He was appointed Lieutenant-Governor of Gibraltar in 1727 remaining there until 1730.

He fought in the War of Austrian Succession and was killed at the Battle of Dettingen in 1743.

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ARMY REGIMENTS GIBRALTAR 1727

All of these regiments arrived in Gibraltar at the beginning of April 1727.[ref]

 

 

Anstruther’s Regiment 1720 – 1760

1751: 26th Regiment of Foot

1881: Amalgamated with 90th Regiment of Foot (Perthshire Volunteers) to form Cameronians (Scottish Rifles) – disbanded in 1968

 

RAISED: A Scottish infantry regiment of the British Army active from 1689 to 1881. Originally formed as the Cameronian Guard by the Lords of the Convention, named after the Cameronians, followers of the Presbyterian Richard Cameron, who had been a militant leader in the struggles of the Covenanters against attempts by the Stuart monarchs Charles II and James VII to outlaw Presbyterianism and impose bishops on the Church of Scotland.

 

GIBRALTARIn 1726, they left Ireland to serve as marines aboard naval ships, and were then sent as reinforcements to the garrison in Gibraltar during the war with Spain in 1727. The regiment did not see field combat during the Siege of Gibraltar, as the activity on both sides was mostly a matter of long-distance bombardment rather than direct attacks; nine men were killed or died of wounds, and twenty-nine were injured.

 

The Regiment remained in the Gibraltar garrison until 1738 when it moved to Minorca, and then returned to Ireland in 1748.

 

COLONELLieutenant-General Philip Anstruther (c. 1680 – 11 November 1760), of Airdrie, Fife, was a British Army officer and Scottish politician who sat in the House of Commons between 1715 and 1754 and was a controversial Lieutenant-governor of Menorca. He was promoted to colonel of the regiment in May 1720. 

 

MORE INFO: [PHILIP ANSTRUTHERParliamentary History / Wikipedia]  [NATIONAL ARMY MUSEUM]

 


 

Middleton’s Regiment 1721 – 1732

1751: 25th Regiment of Foot

1881: The King’s Own Borderers

 

RAISED: On 18 March 1689 by David Melville, 3rd Earl of Leven to defend Edinburgh against the Jacobite forces of James VII. The regiment was part of the Scottish Division of the British Army. 

 

GIBRALTARThe regiment fought at Sheriffmuir in the First Jacobite Rebellion of 1715, and then garrisoned Ireland and Gibraltar. It suffered so severely in the Siege of Gibraltar in 1727 that its few survivors had to be drafted to another regiment while its officers went home to re-recruit.[ref]

 

COLONEL: John Middleton became the colonel of the Somerset Light Infantry in 1732 succeeding Lord Mark Kerr. 

 

John Middleton (27 September 1678 – 4 May 1739) was a British Army officer and Scottish Whig politician who sat in the House of Commons almost continuously between 1713 and 1739.

 

With the changing of colonelcy in 1732, Middleton was succeeded by John Leslie, 10th Earl of Rothes (Rothes’ Regiment 1732).[ref]

 

MORE INFO: [JOHN MIDDLETON Parliamentary History / Wikipedia]  [KING’S OWN SCOTTISH BORDERERS WEBSITE]

 


 

Clayton’s Regiment 1713 – 1743

1751: 14th Regiment of Foot

1881: West Yorkshire Regiment

 

RAISED: By Sir Edward Hales in 1685, by order of King James II. One of the nine new regiments of foot, raised to meet the Monmouth Rebellion it was termed Hales’s Regiment. The regiment served in Flanders between 1693 and 1696 and gained its first battle honour at Namur in 1695.

 

GIBRALTARIn 1715 saw the regiment moved to Scotland to fight the Jacobite risings. In 1727, the regiment played a major part in defending Gibraltar against the Spanish, where it remained garrisoned for the next 15 years.

 

COLONELJasper Clayton (died 27 June 1743) was Lieutenant Governor of Gibraltar from 1727 to 1730 and was colonel of the regiment from 1713 – 1743.

 

MORE INFO: JASPER CLAYTON

 


 

Newton’s Regiment 1722 – 1730

1751: 39th Regiment of Foot

1881: Amalgamated with 54th (West Norfolk) Regiment of Foot to form the Dorset Regiment

 

RAISEDThe 39th Regiment of Foot was raised in 1701, in the reign of William III. Colonel Richard Coote was appointed to command it on 13 February 1702. The first service of the regiment was in an expedition from Ireland to Portugal in 1704. 

 

GIBRALTARThe regiment sailed to Gibraltar in 1726 to reinforce the garrison, before sailing to Jamaica in 1729 and then returning to Ireland in 1732.

 

COLONELWilliam Newton became colonel of the regiment from 28 September 1722 until his death in 1730.

 

William Newton, (died 10 November 1730) was an officer of the British Army. He was promoted to Brigadier-General on 4 March 1727, while serving with his regiment at the thirteenth siege of Gibraltar. 

 

MORE INFO: WILLIAM NEWTON

 


 

Disney’s Regiment 1725 – 1731

1751: 29th Regiment of Foot

1881: Worcestershire Regiment

 

RAISED: Formed on 16 February 1694 during the Nine Years War by Colonel Thomas Farrington as Thomas Farrington’s Regiment of Foot. The regiment was disbanded after the 1697 Treaty of Ryswick, but was reformed in 1702 when the War of the Spanish Succession began. Originally the regiment was to be posted in the West Indies, however after protests from Colonel Farringdon about how unhealthy the posting was, the regiment joined Marlborough’s army in Flanders in 1704.

 

GIBRALTARIn 1712/13, the regiment became part of the Gibraltar garrison and remained there for the next 30 years, defending the fortress against the besieging Spanish army during the Siege of Gibraltar during the 1727-1729.

 

COLONELHenry Disney (died 19th November 1731), succeeded Lord Mark Kerr on 25 December 1725 as colonel of the regiment until the time of his death in 1731.

 

Before becoming colonel of the regiment, Disney was appointed to the 36th Foot Regiment 23rd October 1710 to 10th July 1715. He then left the army for 10 years, but returned when Spain threatened hostilities.

 

MORE INFO: [HENRY DISNEY]  [WORCESTER REGIMENT OF FOOT WEBSITE]

 


 

Haye’s Regiment 1723 – 1732

1751: 34th Regiment of Foot

1881: Amalgamated with 55th (Westmorland) Regiment of Foot to form the Border Regiment

 

RAISEDIn February 1702 in East Anglia by Colonel Lord Lucas as Lord Lucas’s Regiment of Foot to fight in the War of Spanish Succession.

 

GIBRALTARIn March 1727, three regiments, one of them being Haye’s Regiment, arrived in Gibraltar from Menorca as reinforcements.[ref] 

 

In February 1727 the garrison of Gibraltar opened its fire on the besieging army and the Thirty fourth Regiment was at this period on its way from Ireland to share in the honor of a successful defence of this important fortress. The regiment encountered a storm at sea and lost several companies by shipwreck six companies proceeded to Plymouth and afterwards continuing their voyage arrived at Gibraltar on the 26th of March in company with the Twenty fifth Regiment they were followed by several other corps. The garrison made a very gallant defence of the fortress committed to their charge against the storm of war which raged against them with increasing fury until the thunder of one hundred cannon became almost incessant in the day time and was partially continued throughout the night.[ref] 

 

COLONELColonel Robert Hayes (died 7 April 1731) was a soldier of the British Army. He was Colonel of the regiment from 1723 – 1732.

 

The regiment was withdrawn from Gibraltar in 1728 and proceeded to Ireland.

 

MORE INFO: [THE BRITISH EMPIRE]  [ALL THINGS GEORGIAN]

Gibraltar Governor Joseph Sabine

Joseph Sabine

Born c. 1661 – Died 24.10.1739

 

TERM: 1730, 15th October – 1739, 24th October

 

General Joseph Sabine was a British general and Member of Parliament.

He served in Flanders throughout the War of Spanish Succession, commanding his Regiment at the Battle of Blenheim in 1704, at the Battle of Oudenarde in 1708 and then at the Siege of Lille later that year.

He was promoted to General in 1730, and was subsequently appointed Governor of Gibraltar; he died in Gibraltar in 1739.

BIOGRAPHY

ARMY REGIMENTS GIBRALTAR 1732

Lord Albemarle’s Regiment 1731 – 1733

(See Disney’s Regiment 1727 for regimental history)

1751: 29th Regiment of Foot

1881: Worcestershire Regiment

 

Formed in February 1694 during the Nine Years War by Colonel Thomas Farrington, the regiment became part of the Gibraltar garrison in 1712/13, spending the next 30 years here and defended the fortress against the besieging Spanish army during the Thirteenth Siege of Gibraltar 1727.

 

COLONELLord Albermarle succeeded Henry Disney in 1731 on the event of his death.[ref]

 

Colonel Willem Anne van Keppel, 2nd Earl of Albemarle (5 June 1702 – 22 December 1754) was a British soldier, diplomat and courtier.

 

He was succeeded by George Reade as colonel of the regiment in 1733.

 

MORE INFO: LORD WILLEM ALBEMARLE

 


 

Kirk’s Regiment 1710 – 1741

1751: 2nd Regiment of Foot

1881: The Queen’s Royal West Surrey Regiment

 

RAISED1661 by Henry Mordaunt, 2nd Earl of Peterborough as The Earl of Peterborough’s Regiment of Foot on Putney Heath (then in Surrey) specifically to garrison the new English acquisition of Tangier, part of Catherine of Braganza’s dowry when she married King Charles II. 

 

In the campaign in the Low Countries, it distinguished itself in the defence of Tongren (1703), before surrendering to the French. For this action, the regiment was awarded its ‘Royal’ title.

 

GIBRALTARThe regiment was on garrison duties in Canada, Gibraltar, Ireland and England during the 18th century. 

 

COLONELLieutenant General Percy Kirk (1684 – 1 January 1741) was a British Army officer and became colonel of the regiment on 19th September 1710.[ref]

 

MORE INFO: [PERCY KIRK]  [NATIONAL ARMY MUSEUM]

 


 

Tyrawley’s Regiment 1713 – 1739

1751: 7th Regiment of Foot

1881: The Royal Fusiliers (City of London Regiment)

 

RAISED: Formed as a fusilier regiment in 1685 by George Legge, 1st Baron Dartmouth, from two companies of the Tower of London guard, and was originally called the Ordnance Regiment. The regiment took part in an expedition which captured the town of Rota in Spain in spring 1702 and then saw action at the Battle of Vigo Bay in October 1702 during the War of the Spanish Succession.

 

GIBRALTARIts first overseas deployments were to the Low Countries in 1689 and Spain in the 1700s. In 1713, it began 60 years rotating between England, Ireland and the Mediterranean, including two long spells with the Gibraltar garrison.[ref]

 

COLONELJames O’Hara, 2nd Baron Tyrawley and 1st Baron Kilmaine, (1682 – 14 July 1774), was an Irish officer in the British Army. He was Colonel of the regiment from 1713 to 1739, succeeding his father, Lieutenant General Charles O’Hara, 1st Baron Tyrawley.[ref]

 

He later became the Governor of Gibraltar in 1756.

 

MORE INFO: JAMES TYRAWLEY

 


 

Rothes’ Regiment 1732 – 1745

(See Middleton’s Regiment 1727 for regiment history) 

1751: 25th Regiment of Foot

1881: King’s Own Scottish Borderers

 

Part of the Scottish Division of the British Army, the regiment was raised in 1689 by David Melville, 3rd Earl of Leven to defend Edinburgh against the Jacobite forces of James VII.  The regiment suffered heavy losses during the Thirteenth Siege of Gibraltar in 1727. 

 

COLONELJohn Leslie became colonel of the regiment in 1732 succeeding John Middleton.[ref]

 

General John Leslie, 10th Earl of Rothes (1698 – 10 December 1767) was a senior British Army officer who became Commander-in-Chief of the Royal Irish Army between 1758 and 1767.

 

MORE INFO: JOHN LESLIE

 


Grove’s Regiment 1715 – 1737

1751: 10th (North Lincoln) Regiment of Foot

1881: Royal Lincolnshire Regiment

 

RAISED: On 20 June 1685 as the Earl of Bath’s Regiment for its first Colonel, John Granville, 1st Earl of Bath.

 

COLONEL: Brigadier-General Henry Grove (born 1665 – died 1736) was a British Army officer. He became colonel of the regiment on 23rd June 1715.

 

Grove was succeeded by Francis Columbine in 1737.[ref]

 

MORE INFO: HENRY GROVE